INCOTERMS DETAILS

Incoterms make international trade easier and help traders in different countries to understand one another. These standard trade definitions that are most commonly used in international contracts are protected by ICC copyright.

To assist traders to understand the areas that the 13 Incoterms cover and how each one works, the official ICC website now publishes the Preambles to each term in read-only format, together with basic information and background.

The Preambles do not spell out the obligations of buyer and seller, which are essential to correct use of Incoterms. This information may be obtained by consulting the full published texts of the 13 Incoterms, available from ICC Publishing and ICC national committees throughout the world.

Incoterms is developed, maintained and promoted by ICC Commission on Commercial Law and Practice (CLP).

The 13 INCOTERMS

Origin Terms

EXW - Ex-Works, named place where shipment is available to the buyer, not loaded.
The seller will not contract for any transportation.

International Carriage NOT Paid by Seller

FCA - Free Carrier, unloaded at the seller's dock OR a named place where shipment is available to the international carrier or agent, not loaded.
This term can be used for any mode of transport.

FAS - Free Alongside Ship, named ocean port of shipment.
Ocean shipments that are NOT containerized.

FOB - Free On Board vessel, named ocean port of shipment.
This term is used for ocean shipments only where it is important that the goods pass the ship's rail.

International Carriage Paid by the Seller

CFR - Cost and Freight, Named ocean port of destination.
This term is used for ocean shipments that are not containerized.

CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight, named ocean port of destination.
This term is used for ocean shipments that are not containerized.

CPT - Carriage Paid To, named place or port of destination.
This term is used for air or ocean containerized and roll-on roll-off shipments.

CIP - Carriage and Insurance Paid To, named place or port of destination.
This term is used for air or ocean containerized and roll-on roll-off shipments.

Arrival At Stated Destination

DAF - Delivered At Frontier, named place of destination, by land, not unloaded.
This term is used for any mode of transportation but must be delivered by land.

DES - Delivered Ex-Ship, named port of destination, not unloaded.
This term is used for ocean shipments only.

DEQ - Delivered Ex-Quay, named port of destination, unloaded, not cleared.
This term is used for ocean shipments only.

DDU - Delivered Duty Unpaid, named place of destination, not unloaded, not cleared.
This term is used for any mode of transportation.

DDP - Delivered Duty Paid, named place of destination, not unloaded, cleared.
This term is used for any mode of transportation.

"INCOTERMS 2000" is one in a series of short articles published by International Business Training, a division of InterMart, Inc. These articles are designed to help businesses and individuals succeed in the global marketplace.

For more information about a variety of import and export publications, self-study courses and seminars designed specifically for small and mid-sized companies, visit our web page at www.i-b-t.net.

The laws, regulations, procedures, requirements, methods, interpretations and other information contained in this article are subject to change and therefore the reader should not rely solely on this guide in dealing with the commercial laws of the United States or foreign countries. Errors and omissions, typographical, clerical and otherwise, sometimes occur and it is possible that errors have occurred in respect to anything printed in this article.